Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae
This plant is an evergreen climbing plant, and grows wild from Assam, India to the hilly areas of Myanmar. The stem grows 5 to 8 meters, and lignifies. This species has elliptical leaves and is monoecious or dioecious. A part of the leaf node bulges. Aerial roots emerge from the underside of the node and climb over other plants. A 10-cm spike appears on the opposite side of the leaves. The peppers are produced in India, Indonesia, and Vietnam.
Part used: fruit
Medicinal use: stomachic and carminative
Main component: piperine
This species blooms in the third year after it is planted as a cutting. The flowers are very small.
Green pepper, black pepper, and white pepper are made from this plant.
The red pepper from a Peruvian pepper species (Schinus molle Linn.).